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Shorter Catechism

𝒬 18. Wherein consists the sinfulness of that estate whereinto man fell?

𝒜. The sinfulness of that estate whereinto man fell, consists in the guilt of Adam's first sin,1 the want of original righteousness,2 and the corruption of his whole nature,3 which is commonly called original sin; together with all actual transgressions which proceed from it.4

  1. Romans 5:12

    Therefore, just as sin came into the world through one man, and death through sin, and so death spread to all men because all sinned—

    Romans 5:19

    For as by the one man's disobedience the many were made sinners, so by the one man's obedience the many will be made righteous. (ESV)

  2. Romans 3:10

    as it is written:

    “None is righteous, no, not one;

    Colossians 3:10

    and have put on the new self, which is being renewed in knowledge after the image of its creator.

    Ephesians 4:24

    and to put on the new self, created after the likeness of God in true righteousness and holiness. (ESV)

  3. Psalm 51:5

    Behold, I was brought forth in iniquity,
    and in sin did my mother conceive me.

    John 3:6

    That which is born of the flesh is flesh, and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit.

    Romans 3:18

    “There is no fear of God before their eyes.”

    Romans 8:7-8

    For the mind that is set on the flesh is hostile to God, for it does not submit to God's law; indeed, it cannot. Those who are in the flesh cannot please God.

    Ephesians 2:3

    among whom we all once lived in the passions of our flesh, carrying out the desires of the body and the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, like the rest of mankind. (ESV)

  4. Genesis 6:5

    The Lord saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every intention of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually.

    Psalm 53:1-3

    53:1 The fool says in his heart, “There is no God.”
    They are corrupt, doing abominable iniquity;
    there is none who does good.

    God looks down from heaven
    on the children of man
    to see if there are any who understand,
    who seek after God.

    They have all fallen away;
    together they have become corrupt;
    there is none who does good,
    not even one.

    Matthew 15:19

    For out of the heart come evil thoughts, murder, adultery, sexual immorality, theft, false witness, slander.

    Romans 3:10-18

    as it is written:

    “None is righteous, no, not one;
    no one understands;
    no one seeks for God.
    All have turned aside; together they have become worthless;
    no one does good,
    not even one.”
    “Their throat is an open grave;
    they use their tongues to deceive.”
    “The venom of asps is under their lips.”
    “Their mouth is full of curses and bitterness.”
    “Their feet are swift to shed blood;
    in their paths are ruin and misery,
    and the way of peace they have not known.”
    “There is no fear of God before their eyes.”

    Romans 3:23

    for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God,

    Galatians 5:19-21

    Now the works of the flesh are evident: sexual immorality, impurity, sensuality, idolatry, sorcery, enmity, strife, jealousy, fits of anger, rivalries, dissensions, divisions, envy, drunkenness, orgies, and things like these. I warn you, as I warned you before, that those who do such things will not inherit the kingdom of God.

    James 1:14-15

    But each person is tempted when he is lured and enticed by his own desire. Then desire when it has conceived gives birth to sin, and sin when it is fully grown brings forth death. (ESV)

Larger Catechism

𝒬 25. Wherein consisteth the sinfulness of that estate whereinto man fell?

𝒜. The sinfulness of that estate whereinto man fell, consisteth in the guilt of Adam's first sin,1 the want of that righteousness wherein he was created, and the corruption of his nature, whereby he is utterly indisposed, disabled, and made opposite unto all that is spiritually good, and wholly inclined to all evil, and that continually;2 which is commonly called original sin, and from which do proceed all actual transgressions.3

  1. Romans 5:12

    Therefore, just as sin came into the world through one man, and death through sin, and so death spread to all men because all sinned—

    Romans 5:19

    For as by the one man's disobedience the many were made sinners, so by the one man's obedience the many will be made righteous.

    1 Corinthians 15:22

    For as in Adam all die, so also in Christ shall all be made alive. (ESV)

  2. Romans 3:10-19

    as it is written:

    “None is righteous, no, not one;
    no one understands;
    no one seeks for God.
    All have turned aside; together they have become worthless;
    no one does good,
    not even one.”
    “Their throat is an open grave;
    they use their tongues to deceive.”
    “The venom of asps is under their lips.”
    “Their mouth is full of curses and bitterness.”
    “Their feet are swift to shed blood;
    in their paths are ruin and misery,
    and the way of peace they have not known.”
    “There is no fear of God before their eyes.”

    Now we know that whatever the law says it speaks to those who are under the law, so that every mouth may be stopped, and the whole world may be held accountable to God.

    Ephesians 2:1-3

    2:1 And you were dead in the trespasses and sins in which you once walked, following the course of this world, following the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that is now at work in the sons of disobedience— among whom we all once lived in the passions of our flesh, carrying out the desires of the body and the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, like the rest of mankind.

    Romans 5:6

    For while we were still weak, at the right time Christ died for the ungodly.

    Romans 8:7-8

    For the mind that is set on the flesh is hostile to God, for it does not submit to God's law; indeed, it cannot. Those who are in the flesh cannot please God.

    Genesis 6:5

    The Lord saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every intention of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually.

    Colossians 3:10

    and have put on the new self, which is being renewed in knowledge after the image of its creator.

    Ephesians 4:24

    and to put on the new self, created after the likeness of God in true righteousness and holiness. (ESV)

  3. James 1:14-15

    But each person is tempted when he is lured and enticed by his own desire. Then desire when it has conceived gives birth to sin, and sin when it is fully grown brings forth death.

    Psalm 53:1-3

    53:1 The fool says in his heart, “There is no God.”
    They are corrupt, doing abominable iniquity;
    there is none who does good.

    God looks down from heaven
    on the children of man
    to see if there are any who understand,
    who seek after God.

    They have all fallen away;
    together they have become corrupt;
    there is none who does good,
    not even one.

    Matthew 15:19

    For out of the heart come evil thoughts, murder, adultery, sexual immorality, theft, false witness, slander.

    Romans 3:10-18

    as it is written:

    “None is righteous, no, not one;
    no one understands;
    no one seeks for God.
    All have turned aside; together they have become worthless;
    no one does good,
    not even one.”
    “Their throat is an open grave;
    they use their tongues to deceive.”
    “The venom of asps is under their lips.”
    “Their mouth is full of curses and bitterness.”
    “Their feet are swift to shed blood;
    in their paths are ruin and misery,
    and the way of peace they have not known.”
    “There is no fear of God before their eyes.”

    Romans 3:23

    for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God,

    Galatians 5:19-21

    Now the works of the flesh are evident: sexual immorality, impurity, sensuality, idolatry, sorcery, enmity, strife, jealousy, fits of anger, rivalries, dissensions, divisions, envy, drunkenness, orgies, and things like these. I warn you, as I warned you before, that those who do such things will not inherit the kingdom of God. (ESV)


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Based on Calendar of Readings in the Westminster Standards by Dr. Joey Pipa. Scripture taken from The Holy Bible, English Standard Version. Copyright ©2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers. Used by permission. All rights reserved.